Canada CF-105 Arrow was designed to defend Canada from attack by Soviet bombers. It represents a remarkable advance in aerodynamics, computer flight technology, manufacturing, flight control, engine design, and speed.
Canada CF-105 Arrow: All-weather Interceptor
MilitaryEzyInfo.com | The Avro CF-105 Arrow is a triangular-winged fighter-interceptor built by Canadian aircraft manufacturer Avro Aircraft Limited between 1953 and 1959. A total of five aircraft were built between 1958 and 1959 and were able to pass the test, but in 1959 The manufacturing program was canceled by the Diefenbaker government, a decision that would later spark political strife and controversy.
Even now, more than 50 years after the cancellation of the Arrow project, it’s hard to understand what exactly led the Canadian government to do so. The decision to cancel the work was at least controversial. It was made at a time when the aircraft was just starting to go into full swing. In addition, the engines of the Orenda Iroquois fighter-interceptor, which could significantly improve performance, were already in the flight test phase at the time.
The cancellation of the project was also very damaging to the Canadian economy. Avro Aircraft Limited lost tens of thousands of people to fires and millions more. By the time the program was completed, there were still 37 more units and parts for another 37 aircraft in the factory, but they were all scrapped and dismantled.
Canada CF-105 Arrow: History
The CF-100 fighter-interceptor, which first flew in January 1950 (about 600 aircraft in total), was considered to be the beginning of the process of transition to domestic aircraft of the Royal Canadian Air Force. With this in mind, by 1951, AVRO designers had already begun to develop a successor aircraft; sketch designs for the C104/1 and C104/2 fighters were produced. The former had a single-engine propulsion system and the latter a twin-engine propulsion system. In October 1952, these designs were evaluated by the Canadian Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and already in June 1953 the Royal Canadian Air Force Command approved a modified project to make a twin-engine fighter-interceptor and was named the CF-105 Arrow.
In August 1953, Canada began aerodynamic testing of 17 models on a scale of 1:80 to 1:6. In addition to blowing up in a wind tunnel, free flight tests were also conducted in Canada and the United States. The Nike rocket was used for nine launches at Point Petre, Canada, and two more at NASA’s test site in the United States. All launches proved to be successful.
Already in late 1954, contracts for the production of two prototypes of the fighter, which were named “Arrow” and the military designation CF-105, were signed. The working design was handled by Jim Chamberlin. The choice of a suitable engine was decided upon over a fairly long period of time. The first Rolls-Royce RB106 chosen was not yet ready, so the Curtiss-Wright J67 was chosen, but development was halted in early 1955. This led to a stop at Pratt and Whitney’s J75 engine before the refinement of the Orenda PS-13 Iroquois engine in Canada.
In 1954, the Soviet Union successfully tested a hydrogen bomb and adopted the new M-4 bomber. In Canada, these two pieces of news drew an appropriate response and led to a rush to develop a new fighter-interceptor. It was decided to accelerate the process by applying “patriotic incentives” to motivate the designers, i.e., increasing funding for the project. A total of C$260 million was used to build five prototypes and prepare for the mass production of a further 35 fighter interceptors.
Already in early 1955, Canada began construction of the first prototype Mk1, and a year later the second plane was ready – the Mk2.In the summer of 1957, the construction of the first plane was completed, and on October 4, 1957, the first plane was unveiled to the public, and on March 25, 1958, the test pilot Ya appeared. Zlakovsky took the plane. Even at that point, it was already visible that it had the excellent aerodynamic characteristics inherent in later models of fighter aircraft. Moreover, it was the only aircraft in the British Commonwealth at the time capable of flying at twice the speed of sound; there were a total of five prototypes of the SF-105 (a sixth was in the assembly plant).
As early as 1956, preparatory work began in Canada for mass production of the Mk. II version of the CF-105 at TRD Orenda Iroquois, Canada, with 32 aircraft scheduled for delivery at the end of 1959. However, on February 20, 1959, the Canadian government suddenly decided to suspend the development of the aircraft, justified on the grounds of economic considerations (the price of the program, including the development and production of 100 aircraft, was $1.6 billion). A more efficient and economical option was envisioned to replace the CF-105 fighter-interceptor with Bomarc surface-to-air missiles. Purchasing these missiles would cost Canada $ 200 million. A few years later, the Royal Canadian Air Force adopted Lockheed’s American Starfighter F-104 aircraft. It was manufactured under license in Canada.
February 20, 1959, was a true “Black Friday” for aircraft manufacturing in Canada. On this day alone, 13,000 to 14,000 people lost their jobs, and soon another 35,000 citizens lost their jobs. Only on April 30, 1962, all the assets of AVRO Canada were acquired by the British association Hawker-Siddley.
Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow Specification
The CF-105 fighter aircraft was originally designed as a long-range interceptor, due to the vast territory of Canada. It was designed to carry out combat missions in difficult atmospheric conditions, day and night. This required designers to install extensive and sophisticated electronics and develop large fuel systems, making the CF-105 the heaviest and largest fighter aircraft of the 1950s.
The CF-105 Arrow fighter-interceptor was a twin-engine, two-seat, high-flying aircraft with triangular wings, and the fuselage was built without horizontal wings. The designers chose the high fuselage, which allowed them to keep the design of the fuselage intact but change the engine and armament without problems. The fuselage was controlled by the high rudder as well as individual rudders that acted as ailerons (located on the cantilever portion of the wings). The vertical wings of the fuselage were standard. The aircraft’s landing gear was a twin-wheeled three-point system. The main wheel was a twin tandem system, and the front post wheels were paired. The fuselage of the fighter-interceptor was built in accordance with area rules and was equipped with containers for brake parachutes. The fuselage was also equipped with an under-fuselage brake panel.
The Mk.l prototype used two Pratt-Whitney J75 turbojet engines, each with a thrust of 7485 kN in afterburning mode and 10,886 kN in afterburning mode. The serial model of the fighter turned out to have a completely Canadian-made power plant – the Iroquois PS-13 engine with 9,000 kN thrust without afterburning and 13 360 kN thrust in afterburning mode. The development of this engine was started in 1953 by the AVRO Gas Turbine Division (later Orenda Engine). Each engine was to use a separate side air intake.
The development of the aircraft’s weapon systems was to be handled by Hughes Aircraft Company, which had previously done the same work with the CF-100 Canuck. Canadian military pilots wanted a future-proof Hughes MX-1179 system and a more advanced missile than Falcon had anticipated. The interceptor production model weapons consisted of eight air-to-air Sparrow missiles and were to be placed in the internal compartment of the weapon.
Flight Performance CF-105 Arrow Mk. 2
- Length: 26.07 m, height: 6.4 m, wingspan: 15.24 m, wing area: 113.82 sq.m.
- The airframe weight was 20,385 kg.
- The weight of the aircraft is 20,385 kg.
- The weight of the plane is usually 28,281 kg.
- The weight of the plane is 31,187 kg.
- Power plant – 2 TRD Orenda PS – 13th Iroquois, 2×9000 kN thrust and 2×13,600 kN (afterburn).
- Maximum flight speed: 2500 km/h (2.3M).
- The combat action radius is 925 km.
- Practical ceiling: 17,842 m.
- Crew: 2 people.
- Armament: up to 8 URs.