Rafale Fighter Jet Specifications | The Dassault Rafale is a fourth-generation multirole fighter developed by the French company Dassault.
Rafale Fighter Jet Full Specifications
MilitaryEzyInfo.com – The aircraft is entirely a French project-engines, weapons, avionics, and its own production and is currently an extreme aircraft created without the U.S. or other foreign assistance.
Development of the Rafale began in 1983, 2 years before France formally withdrew from the program. The program was designed to create a promising Eurofighter FEFA, later designated Eurofighter 2000. Like the Eurofighter, the Rafale was designed, like the Eurofighter, to be used as a bomber and interceptor, capable of air superiority and air defense, as well as bombing ground targets.
Staff: 1-2 people
Length of the aircraft: 15.3 meters
Height: 5.3 meters
Wingspan: 10.9 m
Wing area: 45.7 m2
Empty weight: 10,000 kilograms
Normal takeoff weight: 14,710kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 24,500kg
Payload weight: 9,500kg
Fuel weight: 4,700 kilograms
Fuel weight of off-board fuel engine: 6,700 kg
Engine: 2 SNECMA M88-2 twin-circuit turbojet engines with afterburners
The dry weight of the engines: 897 kilograms
Maximum thrust: 5,100kgf per engine
Afterburner thrust: 7,500kgf per engine
Gas temperature in front of the turbine: 1,577°C
Maximum speed: Mach 1.8 (1,900 km/h)
Combat radius (fighter-interceptor version): 1,093 km
Combat radius: 1,800 km
Practical ceiling: 1,5240 meters
Climbing speed: 305 m/s
Rafale Fighter Jet: History and Description
In 1983, Dassault developed the Avion de Combat Experimentale (ACX) as part of its national program. France withdrew from the EFA project because its armed forces, particularly its navy, needed a compact, lightweight machine that weighed about 8,000 kilograms. The demonstration prototype ACX weighed 9.5 kilograms at the time. It first flew on July 4, 1986, and helped test the Avion de Combat Tactique program’s aerodynamic scheme, features, configuration, remote control system, and design using a variety of composite materials.
The ACX was later renamed the Gustwind A. The Avion de Combat Tactique was the first of its kind. Initially, it was equipped with two General Electric F404-GE-400 twin-circuit turbojet engines. After 460 test flights, including a landing on the deck of the carrier Clemenceau (touchdown to the second lap), one engine (left) was replaced by a SNECMA M88-2, which was designed specifically for the Gust.
The Rafale was designed as a “Duck” with a mid-section delta wing and a high forward horizontal feather position. The wing had a two-segment wing and a single-segment elevator.
The primary material of the wing is carbon fiber. The fairing at the cantilever end and at the wing-fuselage junction is made of Kevlar – a titanium pre-baffle. Fifty percent of the fuselage is made of carbon plastic; the side panels of the wing cladding are made of aluminum-lithium alloy. Composites account for 20% of the total area and 25% of the weight of the Gust glider. As a result, the weight of the glider was reduced by 300 kg.
A deck version of the fighter was developed for the French Navy, named “Rafale M”, featuring a reinforced chassis and glider design, brake hooks under the tail of the fuselage, built-in retractable ladders, etc. At the end of the keel was installed the Telemir system, which provided data exchange between the carrier’s navigation equipment and the aircraft’s navigation system. As a result of all the modifications, the Rafale M is 500 kg heavier than the Rafale C.
The Rafale was equipped with landing gear manufactured by Messier-Dowty. On the Rafale C and B modifications, there is one aircraft on each of the main mounts and two aircraft mounts in the front. On the Rafale M deck, the front brace is self-contained. When towing, it makes an almost 360-degree turn.
On the Gust fighter, all struts move forward. All wheels were equipped with Messier-Bugatti carbon fiber brakes.
On the single-seat Gust C and M aircraft, the cabin is equipped with Martin-Baker Mk. 16 ejector seats to ensure the aircraft is safely off the ground when parked. The flashlight opens to the right and moves sideways on hinges. The control bay on the instrument panel has three digital LCD multifunction displays. In the center is a tactical display that serves to show flight and navigation information as well as the information received from various sensors. The sides have displays that show information about the engine, hydraulics, fuel, oxygen, electrical systems, and other equipment.
Rafale Fighter Jet: Engine
The gust powerplant – two two-circuit turbojets Snecma M88-2E4. 4970 kgf per tow (-7445 kgf in afterburner mode). The development of the M88 engine was quite a challenge for Snecma. The customer needed an engine that could operate reliably in maneuvering air combat and low-level air defense systems at high breakout speeds. Technical requirements included a long service life, low fuel consumption in all flight modes, and a high thrust-to-weight ratio. Snecma preferred a two-shaft engine, which later became the ancestor of the French-built third-generation engine.
Officially, the development program for the M88 engine began in 1986. The first bench tests of the engine were conducted in February 1989, and flight tests of the Rafale A demonstrator began in February 1990. Final certification took place in 1996.
In order to obtain a high-performance engine, the developers used various advanced technologies in the engine design. For example, compressor disks and blades were made into a single piece, monocrystalline blades were used in the manufacture of high-pressure turbines, and powder technology was used in the manufacture of turbine disks. The creators of the TRDDF were tasked with ensuring that the aircraft would have as little thermal visibility as possible and that smoke would be reduced to reduce visual visibility.
A multi-stage approach was used to create the engines.
Rafale Fighter Jet: Fuel Capacity
The single-seat Rafale C and M can carry 5,900 liters of fuel in their internal tanks, while the two-seat Rafale B can carry 5,300 liters. Five of the 14 external units can be fitted with external fuel tanks of different capacities. Four underwing units are equipped with 1,250-liter fuel tanks, while the central unit is equipped with 2,000-liter fuel tanks. The Rafale B is equipped with a 30mm Nexter DEFA 791B cannon, which has a firing rate of 2,500 rounds per minute.
Rafale Fighter Jet: Weapons
The 30mm Nexter DEFA 791B gust gun has a rate of fire of 2500 rounds per minute. Ammunition – 125 armor-piercing tracer ignition OPIT rounds with a bottom fuse.
Rocket weapons include:
– Air-to-air missiles: AIM-9, AIM-132, AIM-120, MICA, Mazhik II, MBDA Meteor.
– Air-to-Surface Missiles: Apache, Storm Shadow, AM.39, AASM, ASMP with a nuclear warhead.
Rafale Fighter Jet: Testing and Warfare
In July 1986, the experimental Rafale A fighter made its maiden flight. The first Rafale C (single-seat destroyer) took off in May 1991, and the first Rafale M, designed for the French carriers, took off in December of the same year. Under the French Navy and Air Force’s mass production plan, 86 and 235 aircraft will be delivered, respectively.
The Rafale was first used by NATO in operations in Afghanistan in March 2007. In addition, since March 2011, the aircraft have been used in NATO operations against Gaddafi’s forces in Libya.
The operation of the Rafale fighter jet was not without incident.
On December 6, 2007, at 1830 hours, a Rafale B fighter jet taking off from Saint-Dise Air Base crashed near the village of Neuvic (central France). The cause of the crash was a malfunction of the electric remote-controlled flight control system. Captain Emmanuelle Moreuse, who was piloting the aircraft, was killed.
On September 24, 2009, two Rafale M version fighter jets crashed into the Mediterranean Sea 30 km from the city of Perpignan. The crash occurred at 6:10 p.m. as the cars were returning to the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle. According to the Defense Incident Investigation Agency, the cause of the accident was human error. A fighter pilot, Capt. 2nd Class Francois Duflot died. A second pilot, Capt. Jean Beaufilles, 3rd Class, was ejected.
On November 28, 2010, a Rafale M version of a fighter jet crashed into the Arabian Sea on its way back to Charles de Gaulle after completing a combat mission in support of coalition forces in Afghanistan. The accident occurred 100 km off the coast of Pakistan. It was caused by a technical malfunction. The ejected pilot was picked up by a rescue helicopter.
On July 2, 2012, a French Rafale deck fighter crashed during an exercise. The incident took place in the Mediterranean Sea and the vehicle was based at Charles de Gaulle. The pilot ejected and was picked up by an American helicopter. In the Mediterranean, French and U.S. aircraft carriers conducted a joint exercise.
The Rafale is in service with the French Air Force and Navy.
The Air Force received the aircraft into service in 2006. As of 2012, 38 Rafale Bs and 37 Rafale Cs had been adopted.
The Navy adopted the Rafale M in 2004. as of 2012, there were 36 aircraft.
In addition, the Rafale won a bid from India and participated in a bid to supply fighter aircraft to Brazil and the UAE. On January 31, 2012, the Rafale won an international bid from MMRCA to deliver fighter aircraft to Brazil and the UAE.
Rafale Fighter Jet: Modifications
The Gust A – Gust Experience demo. It is slightly larger and heavier than the Gustwind C/M aircraft. It was equipped with a pair of F404-GE-400 engines with 6,800 kg (16,000 lb) of thrust, on which the M88 engine was developed. It was ordered as a training version of the Rafale C, with all features retained.
“Rafale C” multirole land-based combat aircraft. Originally codenamed “Rafale D”, the aircraft was renamed in 1990. The French Air Force requested 250 single and double variants.
Rafale M – a single-seat multirole airborne aircraft. It is similar to the Rafale C, but with landing hooks and a modified nose column of variable length. The Navy requires 86 units.