Typhoon Eurofighter Full Specifications – In the second half of the 20th century, it was no longer communism, but associations that roamed Europe. It seemed that the era of inter-ethnic tensions was receding and that the former “ancestral enemies” would finally become friends. Pan-European communities and enterprises were formed. They also involved the military industry. – MilitaryEzyInfo.com
In the early 1980s, an all-European fighter jet development project was started, known as the Eurofighter. European manufacturers had been working together before, but it was the Eurofighter that was supposed to become the symbol of reaching a new level of integration.
Eurofighter Typhoon Full Specifications – Fighter Aircraft
Specific technical specifications of European Typhoon fighters
Length: 15.96m; Height: 5.28m; Wingspan: 10.95m, including wingtip ECM pods; Wing area: 50m2
Empty weight: 10,995 kg; Fuel capacity: 4,000 kg; External weapon load: 6,500-8,000 kg; Maximum take-off weight: 23,000 kg
3. Flight Performance
Maximum flight speed: Mach 2.0+; maximum speed at low altitude: 1,390 km/h (750 knots equivalent airspeed KEAS); minimum speed: 203 km/h (110 knots equivalent airspeed); operational ceiling: 16,765 m (55,000 ft); clocked to 35,000 ft (10,600 m)/Mach 1.5:2.5 minutes; takeoff Range: <700 m; landing range: <700 m; operational radius: 3,700 km (2,000 nautical miles).
4. Radius of Operation
Midcourse interception with 10-minute patrols > 750 nautical miles (1,390 km); 3-hour air patrols near fixed points > 100 nautical miles (185 km); ground attack, high-low-high trajectory > 750 nautical miles (1,390 km); ground attack, high-low-high trajectory > 350 nautical miles (650 km)
Range: greater than 2,000 nautical miles (3,700 km); Limiting overload: +9/-3; Maintenance man-hours per flight hour: 9 hours.
French Rafale Basic Performance Information Length 15.30m Height 5.34m Wingspan 10.90m Wing Area 46.0m2 Empty Weight 9060 Overhead Weight 6000kg(Normal) 8000kg(Max) Max Weight 21,500kg Max Leveling Speed M2.0 Takeoff and Landing Distance 400m ( Air Combat) 600 meters (Ground Combat) Main Airborne Equipment 780 kg of avionics equipped with Thomson CSF/ESDRBC fire control radar can track 8 targets simultaneously and can assess the threat and identify priority targets for attack. Maneuverability Maximum leveling speed (high altitude) Mach 2.0, combat radius 1,093 km. Airborne Weapons 1 30mm cannon, 14 external mounts, maximum payload 9 tons. It can carry cruise missiles, air-air missiles, air-ground missiles, etc. Operational radius 1093 km (low-level assault, 12 250 kg bombs, 4 Mika air-air missiles, 3 fuel tanks with a total capacity of 4300 liters) 1852 km (long-range air interception, 8 Mika air-air missiles, 4 fuel tanks with a total capacity of 6600 liters, the altitude of 12,200 meters) Limit overload +9.0/-3.6g
Eurofighter Typhoon Full Specifications: Manufacturing History
Most of the “roots” of the Typhoon (Eurofighter Typhoon, not to be confused with Hawker Typhoon) went to the UK. The search for a replacement for the Jaguar (developed jointly with France) and Mirage (developed in the US) attack aircraft in Europe began in the 1970s. Even though at the time they tried to share the development costs with Germany and France, the requirements for the future fighter were not matched.
If the RAF wanted an attack aircraft that could serve as both an air defense fighter, the “Luftwaffe” would need a “clean” fighter, and the French intended to replace the Jaguar outright.
In 1983, Italy and Spain joined the program to develop a promising fighter. By this time the British had built the EAP technology demonstrator, which looked very much like a future Typhoon.
Although research by the mid-1980s finally established a set of requirements and objectives for the aircraft, disagreements arose again among the developers. The French, who owned aircraft carriers, wanted to use the promising aircraft as a deck.
The British (who converted the deck aircraft to a vertical take-off aircraft) and other project participants (who did not have an aircraft carrier) did not need such a complex design. France withdrew from the project, and four countries joined the Eurofighter consortium. construction of the fighter prototype began in 1989.
Funding for the Armed Forces is decreasing. European countries without an aviation industry lost interest in the project. Germany, which “inherited” a fleet of MiG-29 fighters from the NVA East Germany, also cooled down for development. The Eurofighter project was also slowed down by attempts to design a cheaper version.
As a result, the Germans have simply reduced their purchase program. They softened the requirements for the aircraft’s flight characteristics, simplified the radio electronics, and refused to equip the aircraft with electromagnetic pulse shields. The program itself was named “Eurofighter 2000”. Index-wise, the aircraft was supposed to enter service in the year 2000.
In 1994, two prototype Eurofighter aircraft equipped with RB199 engines (one built in Germany and the second in the UK) made their first flight. A third Italian-built aircraft received the EJ2000 engine planned for the project and took off in 1995. In 1998, the start of series production was announced, and the aircraft also received the final name, “Eurofighter Typhoon”, originally intended for export fighters.
Eurofighter Typhoon Full Specifications: Design
“Eurofighter Typhoon” – a twin-engine, low-flying aircraft with triangular wings and horizontal feathering located on the “duck” scheme for optimal maneuverability and payload.
The Eurofighter’s vertical feathers are monoplane, although the EAP prototype has two kilograms. At the base of the Typhoon’s keel is the air intake for the avionics cooling system heat exchanger.
The fighter is equipped with two Eurojet EJ2000 turbofan engines, specifically designed on the basis of the Rolls-Royce XG-40 technology demonstrator. The Typhoon’s engines have a three-stage low-pressure compressor, a five-stage high-pressure compressor, a monocrystalline turbine, and adjustable (but not deflected) nozzles. The motor control is digital and has a self-diagnostic system. Air enters through an underground air intake consisting of two separate channels.
In the fuselage of the Eurofighter, there are four protected fuel tanks behind the cockpit. Two of these are at the front and rear of each wing. Additional fuel tanks can be suspended under the wings (capacity 1000 liters) and under the fuselage (1500 liters). In the air, the Typhoon refuels with a retractable boom.
The Typhoon control system is an electric remote control system with four redundancies, but no redundant mechanical systems. It provides aerodynamically unstable aircraft “stability”, blocks the output of the critical mode, and automatically puts the aircraft into safe flight mode when you press the “emergency button”. Voice commands issued by the Typhoon pilot can be used to control non-critical fighter functions.
The Eurofighter has three multifunction displays in the cockpit and no conventional equipment. A wide-angle indicator on the windshield of the Typhoon displays a “picture” of the infrared vision system. Helmet-mounted display systems are also available for targeting, etc. Also, unlike many modern analogs, the control knob is traditionally placed on the “Eurofighter” – in the center of the cockpit.
Interestingly, especially the chairs with a larger back angle than the traditional chairs were vetoed, as this would have required a side control knob.
The “Eurofighter” has both an inertial navigation system and a GPS.” The Typhoon “is equipped with the PIRATE infrared vision system.” The “Pirate’s” only eye is located on the left side in front of the “Typhoon’s” windshield and can detect and escort up to 500 ground and air targets. The detection range was not disclosed, but rumor has it that it is more than 90 kilometers.
The modular design Doppler radar CAPTOR is mounted in the nose of the aircraft. It is presumed to be able to track up to 20 targets and attack six. Early projects of the Eurofighter offered the possibility of attacking 10 targets, but the possibility had to be reduced for the sake of cheapness.
The DASS system (later known as Praetorian) collected and evaluated data from onboard surveillance systems, alerted Typhoon pilots to threats, and automatically triggered active defense. Infrared trapping transmitters were placed on the wings of the fighter aircraft. Containers located at the ends of the Eurofighter wings are equipped with antennas for radio-electronic warfare and generate false towing targets.
It is noteworthy that only the British Typhoon aircraft received sensors for laser illumination signals. Overload suits were also developed for the pilots of the Eurofighter – fireproof, with built-in life jackets and protection against weapons of mass destruction.
Eurofighter Typhoon Full Specifications: Modify
The production series of Eurofighter Typhoons are known as “trenches” and can vary in their equipment. Each “batch” of aircraft was in turn divided into several production “blocks”.
The second “block” of Eurofighter gained more developed avionics and a basic version of the DASS system. These “Typhoons” were already considered combat limited. Block 5 (Block 3 and Block 4 were not) had access to air-ground class weapons – these were the first fully operational “Eurofighters”.
The second “batch” of fighters featured a more powerful onboard computer that allowed the use of advanced weapons.” The Block 10 “can, for example, use bombs fired from GPS systems.” The Eurofighter Block 15 “has already received new air-to-surface grade air-to-air missiles Meteor and Sulfurite.”
The “Third Typhoon” features a new generation radar, fiber optic lines, and an advanced outboard fuel tank. The two-seat conversion of the Eurofighter can in principle be used as a combat aircraft, but it is usually used only for training purposes.
Eurofighter Typhoon Full Specifications: Weapons
The Typhoon was equipped with a 27mm BK-27 revolver mounted at the root of the right-wing. Previously, this weapon was used especially on Tornado aircraft and Swedish Gripen fighters. The rate of fire of the gun reached 1700 rounds per minute, and the initial velocity of the shell – 1100 meters per second.
Sweden made multi-purpose “semi-penetrating” shells, and Germany made – “fragmentation” shells, which were torn to pieces due to the deformation of the shell, but without explosives.
The Typhoon gun had 150 rounds. The British considered the gun unnecessary, assuming it would not be used in the first “batch” of fighters, and, judging from the later “Eurofighter” episode, canceled the gun altogether. This decision was later abandoned.
Overall, the Eurofighter gun was closer in characteristics to the domestic GS 30-1 than, for example, the American 20mm Volcano gun. The additional combat load of the Typhoon was suspended from 13 attachment points, eight of which were under the wings and five under the fuselage.
Eurofighter rocket weapons for destroying air targets were originally introduced as replicas of American missiles, the Sidewinder for close combat, and the AMRAAM for medium range. In the UK, it was first replaced by the Aslam missile – which uses infrared guidance and can be launched at distances of up to 25 km. This is a shrapnel device, the fuse is a laser.
Germany was also involved in the development of the Ashram missile, but withdrew from the program and developed its own missile IRIS-T. In terms of characteristics and design, it is close to the British missile. It uses a radar detonator. To replace the AMRAAM missile, a long-range (over 100 km) Meteor missile was developed. It differed from its counterparts in that it used a DC jet engine and was guided by a homing radar head.
To point at the target, a sighting “Litening” was used. Later modifications made it possible to use GPS-guided bombs, including the JDAM series of bombs. The introduction of GBU-39 SDM bombs was also planned.
Guided air-to-surface missiles available to Eurofighter aircraft are the AGM-65 Calf missile and the HARM anti-radar missile. Because the RAF developed the small-sized missile “Sulphurstone” with a tandem warhead and radar CNS, it can hit even fast-moving targets.
The German Eurofighter can carry the cruise missile KEPD-350, which is designed to destroy reinforced objects and can be launched up to 500 km away. Britain’s Typhoon aircraft use the SCALP missile, developed jointly with France, for such missions. The total combat payload of the fighter can reach 9 tons.
A typical Eurofighter’s payload for air supremacy is six long-range missiles, two melee missiles, and three suspension tanks. To support ground forces, the Typhoon can carry up to 18 Sulphur missiles and six air-to-air missiles for self-defense.
Eurofighter Typhoon Full Specifications: Combat History
In 2003, the first European Typhoon (EF-2000) fighters began to enter the German and Spanish air forces. Italian European Predator Typhoons began combat missions in 2005, and in 2011 took part in operations against the regime of Muammar Gaddafi in Libya. In the U.K., Typhoons became operational in 2007 when they began re-equipping the 11th Squadron that had previously operated the Tornado. In 2009, the Typhoons were stationed at Falkland Air Force Base, leading to protests from the Argentine government.
The Typhoon’s involvement in operations against IGIL had to be delayed due to the delay in re-equipping Eurofighter fighters with Thimerosal missiles, but in late 2015 the aircraft appeared in Cyprus. From its base in Akrotiri, the fighter jets were on their way to bombing sites in Syria.
In 2007, Austria decided to buy 15 Eurofighter fighters. Ten years later, the Austrian Defense Ministry filed a lawsuit against the manufacturer – allegedly the Austrians were given false information about the operating costs of the aircraft. The plan is to disarm the Austrian EF-2000 by 2020.
Since 2008, Typhoon has been acquired by Saudi Arabia. Arab fighters were involved in the invasion of Yemen and in 2015 – in the bombing of Syria. In Arabia, the cost of operating the aircraft did not provoke criticism, and in 2018 the Saudi people expressed the desire to buy 48 more fighters. Twelve Eurofighter jets were also purchased in Oman. Kuwait and Qatar have also agreed on deliveries, with Qatar preferring that the planes are not British but assembled in Italy.
Among the potential buyers of the Typhoon, Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Poland, and Serbia are still on the list and have decided to renew their fighter fleets, but are still undecided. Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and other Asian countries have shown interest in Eurofighter.
However, the list of countries that have successfully abandoned the Typhoon is quite extensive – in Europe, such countries are Switzerland, Norway, Greece, and Denmark. The Asian “abandoners” Japan, India, and Singapore. Turkey and the United Arab Emirates have failed to sell the Typhoon.
Eurofighter Flight Comparison
In its basic parameters, the Eurofighter Typhoon is similar to the French Rafale, the American F-35, and the later modified MiG-29. It usually competes with them.
|Eurofighter Typhoon||DassaultRafale||Lockheed-Martin F35A||Mig-35|
|Length (m)||15.9||15.3||15, 5||17, 3|
|Maximum Speed (M)||2,3||1,8||1,6||2,0|
|Effective limit (km)||19,8||15,2||18,2||17,5|
|The radius of combat (km)||1389||1800||1080||1000|
|Combat load (t8)||9||9||9,1||6|
A comparison of data shows, for example, that the F-35 is not as fast as its competitors, that the MiG-35 can carry the fewest number of bombs and missiles, and that the Typhoon, on the whole, is not inferior to its competitors. And its certain popularity can be taken as a good sign (except for the Austrian experience, something caused by the quality of the aircraft).
More interesting is the fact that the MiG-35 is a fighter aircraft, which is close to what is commonly called “fifth-generation” in terms of characteristics, but was actually a deeply modernized aircraft development back in the 70s.
The F-35, a machine that was created in the 1990s, has, at least in theory, a lot of potential for future upgrades. Yes, the aircraft has adapted to new conditions and applied some advanced solutions. But the only possibilities for improving the Typhoon remain the installation of new electronics and ensuring compatibility with other missile and bomb weapons.
The Eurofighter’s engines could be upgraded with controllable thrust vectoring, but to our knowledge, no such improvements have been made. This means that the Typhoon is less maneuverable than all of its competitors that use deflection nozzles. The “Eurofighter”, which is undetectable by radar, is instead inferior to the car, which makes extensive use of stealth technology in its manufacture.
But that’s an F-15, hardly an ultra-modern one. And bombing a position without adequate air defense does not gather enough information about the combat qualities of the Eurofighter.
The aircraft proved quite adequate for the task it was tasked with, and its export success was well-deserved, but the Eurofighter developers clearly didn’t calculate the long term vision. And the relatively small opportunity for Typhoon upgrades may make it impossible for some competitors to survive.
The “Eurofighter” did not become a true all-European fighter. And the UK’s exit from the EU and the start of large-scale procurement of US F-35s have raised doubts about the possibility of further joint development. There is a view that the “joint” was a bad joke, and that the Typhoon might have become cheaper if all members of the joint were not considered first cousins. This fighter did not become, and certainly will not become, a symbol of unity.